Fluoride in Europe: drinking water F levels in the west

 

All figures below are in parts per million (ppm), or equivalently milligrams per litre (mg/L).

Austria

Austria has never inflicted forced fluoridation on its population.
infoportal trinkwasser
Fluoridkompendium (from 2015 – PDF, 754 KB)

Vienna
Lobau less than 0.20, Moosbrunn less than 0.20
Stadt Wien
Graz
0.05 – 0.08
Holding Graz
Linz
0.074 – 0.1
LINZ AG

Belgium

There is agreement that Belgium has not inflicted forced fluoridation on its population for a long time. According to the following article, forced fluoridation in Belgium had ended by 1988.
• Hileman B (1988). Fluoridation of water: Questions about health risks and benefits remain after more than 40 years. Chemical & Engineering News August 1: 26-42.

Brussels

Callois 0.069, Rode 0.134, Bosvoorde 0.082, Ukkel 0.080, Elsene 0.084, Daussouix-Bosvoorde 0.097
VIVAQUA

Antwerp
AWW-PST 0.33, AWW-PB 0.15
water-link
Liége
unable to find data
cile
Ghent
Leveringsgebied 1 – 0.23, Leveringsgebied 2 – 0.20
Farys (fluoride statement)
Farys (composition)

Britain

Forced fluoridation is directly inflicted on approximately 9% of Britain’s population. These crimes are all being committed in England (mostly in the West Midlands and the Northeast), with none in Scotland, Wales, or Northern Ireland. Britain is currently under attack, with a plan to force-fluoridate “across the country”.

England

London
“The average fluoride concentration for the Thames Water supplied area in 2020 was 0.14 milligrammes per litre” (from Notes section of water quality reports).
Finsbury Park (N7 0AA – Holloway supply zone) 0.13, East Ham (E12 5AA – Manor Park) 0.17, Hanger Lane & Stonebridge (W3 0AA) 0.13, Brent Cross (NW2 1AA) 0.13, Charlton (SE13 5AA) 0.14, Merton (SW19 1AA) 0.13
Thames Water
Manchester
“Water supplies in the North West are naturally low in fluoride – and normally contain less than 0.2mg fluoride per litre.”
WA1 2BX (Warrington East water supply zone) 0.0317
United Utilities
Birmingham
Occupied by the enemy since 1964. The tap water is fluoride-contaminated wastewater with a nominal fluoride concentration of 1.0 ppm.
Severn Trent – Fluoride Agreements (PDF, 650 KB)
Severn Trent – Check My Water Quality
South Staffs Water – Water Quality Standards
South Staffs Water – Fluoride
Leeds
“No fluoride is added to the water. Any fluoride that is there is naturally occurring.”
LS1 1BA (Leeds LL Bramhope/Holbeck supply zone) 0.078
Yorkshire Water
Southampton
“None of the water supplied by Southern Water has fluoride added to it. Fluoride occurs naturally in very low levels.”
SO15 0AB (Otterbourne Indirect_01 water supply zone) 0.08625
Southern Water

Scotland

Scotland does not inflict forced fluoridation on its population. That crime ended in 1983 (Attwood 1992, 41).
• Attwood D (1992). Dental health of children before and after the cessation of water fluoridation: volume 1 [PhD thesis]. Department of Conservative Dentistry, University of Glasgow.
Scottish Water

Glasgow
Milngavie C3 (G22 5AA) less than 0.12, Picketlaw (G76 0AA) less than 0.12, Carron Valley B (G63 0AA) less than 0.12
Edinburgh
Glencorse C (EH10 4AA) less than 0.12, Castle Moffat (EH41 3AA) less than 0.12, Marchbank A (EH27 8AA) less than 0.12
Aberdeen
Mannofield East (AB10 1BB) less than 0.12, Mannofield South (AB13 0AA) 0.12, Invercannie (AB31 4AA) 0.12

Croatia

Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia in 1991. It does not inflict, and as far as I can tell has never inflicted, forced fluoridation on its population.

Zagreb
Mala Mlaka less than 0.05, Petruševec 0.07, Sašnak less than 0.05, Zapruđe 0.06, Strmec 0.07
VIO
Split
0.000058 (the units are given as micrograms per litre so I’ve done the conversion to milligrams per litre, but it may be that they made a mistake and the units were milligrams per litre in the first place – via County Water Monitoring link after translating to English)
Vodovod i Kanalizacija Split
Rijeka
0.02
VK

Denmark

Denmark has never inflicted forced fluoridation on its population, though the fluoride concentrations of its public water supplies are generally quite high by western European standards.

Copenhagen
Islevbro 0.60, Lejre 0.81, Marbjerg 0.56, Regnemark 0.62, Slangerup 0.51, Søndersø 0.43, Thorsbro 0.35
HOFOR
Aarhus
0.26
Aarhus Vand
Odense
Hovedværket 0.31, Holmehaveværket 0.31, Lindvedværket 0.59, Lundeværket 0.31, Dalumværket 0.29
VandCenterSyd

Finland

Finland does not inflict forced fluoridation on its population. The Finnish town of Kuopio was forced fluoridated between 1959 and 1992, and to my knowledge this form of state-sponsored terrorism was not perpetrated anywhere in Finland after 1992.

Helsinki (incl. some of Espoo)
Pitkäkoski 0.1, Vanhakaupunki 0.1
HSY
Espoo
Tampere
less than 0.15
Tampereen Vesi
Turku
0.080
Turun Seudun Vesi Oy

France

France has never inflicted forced fluoridation on its population.

Paris
centre 0.0, est 0.2, nordouest 0.1, sudouest 0.0
eau de Paris
Lyon
0.13 (from 2017)
Eau du Grand Lyon
Eau du Grand Lyon (PDF, 53 KB)
Marseille
Sainte-Marthe 0.043, St Barnabe 0.058, Vallon d’Ol 0.041
Eaux de Marseille
Lille
unable to find data
iléo L’eau de la Mel
Toulouse
unable to find data
ARS Occitanie
toulouse

Germany

The reunified Germany, which came into existence in 1990, has never inflicted forced fluoridation on its population.

Ruhrgebiet
Essen 0.11; Dortmund: Hengsen 0.1, Villigst 0.09, Westhofen 0.09, Witten 0.11, Halingen 0.09; Duisburg 0.11, 0.14, 0.13, 0.12; Bochum 0.11, 0.10
Stadtwerke Essen
DEW21
Stadtwerke Duisburg
Stadtwerke Bochum
Berlin
Beelitzhof 0.21, Friedrichshagen 0.18, Kaulsdorf 0.24, Kladow 0.19, Spandau 0.16, Stolpe 0.20, Tegel 0.19, Tiefwerder 0.14, Wuhlheide 0.29
Berliner Wasserbetriebe
Hamburg
Baursberg 0.08, Curslack 0.17, Haseldorfer Marsch 0.08, Nordheide 0.10, Süderelbmarsch 0.14
Hamburg Wasser
Cologne – Bonn
Cologne: linksrheinisch und Pulheim 0.13, rechtsrheinisch less than 0.05; Bonn less than 0.1
RheinEnergie
SWB Energie und Wasser
Munich
0.2
Stadtwerke München

Ireland (Republic of)

Dublin, Cork, Limerick…
Occupied by the enemy. Fluoride, which is highly toxic, nonbiodegradable, and bioaccumulative, is dumped into all of the Republic of Ireland’s public water supplies, with nominal fluoride concentrations of somewhere between 0.6 and 0.8 ppm. This crime has been perpetrated continuously since 1964. The nominal fluoride concentration was previously 1.0 ppm.
Irish Water (fluoridewit propaganda)
Irish Water (drinking water quality)

Italy

Italy has never inflicted forced fluoridation on its population.

Rome
Zona 1 Monteverde Vecchio 0.13, Zona 2 Peschiera Capore + Vigne Nuove 0.11, Zona 3 Peschiera Capore 0.12, Zona 4 Nuovo Vergine Prevalente 0.36, Zona 5 Acqua Marcia less than 0.10, Zona 6 Appio Alessandrino HC 0.13, Zona 7 Appio Alessandrino LC 0.13, Zona 8 Acqua Marcia + Peschiera Capore 0.10, Zona 9 Ostia e Acilia 0.12
acea acqua
Milan
less than 0.50
Milano Blu
Naples
0.3
ABC
Turin
less than 0.10
SMAT
Palermo
0.25
AMAP S.p.A

Netherlands

The Netherlands does not inflict forced fluoridation on its population. Forced fluoridation ceased in 1973 (Attwood 1992, 33).
• Attwood D (1992). Dental health of children before and after the cessation of water fluoridation: volume 1 [PhD thesis]. Department of Conservative Dentistry, University of Glasgow.

Amsterdam
0.09
Waternet
Rotterdam
Berenplaat (3197 XA) 0.21, Kralingen (3113 AA) 0.21
Evides
The Hague
Scheveningen 0.23, Katwijk 0.23, Monster 0.23
Dunea Duin & Water

Norway

Norway has never inflicted forced fluoridation on its population.

Oslo
0.04
Oslo kommune
Bergen
Espeland 0.17, Jordalsvatnet 0.17, Kismul 0.18, Risnes 0.18, Svartediket 0.17, Sædalen 0.18
bergen vann
Stavanger
unable to find data
IVAR

Portugal

Portugal does not inflict forced fluoridation on its population. Depending on which source you believe, Portugal has either never perpetrated any forced fluoridation, or had one experimental treatment plant which was discontinued no later than 1988 (Hileman 1988, 30).
• Hileman B (1988). Fluoridation of water: Questions about health risks and benefits remain after more than 40 years. Chemical & Engineering News August 1: 26-42.

Lisbon
less than 0.100 to 0.312
EPAL
Vila Nova de Gaia
0.1
Águas de Gaia
Porto
0.11
Águas do Porto

Spain

The journal article below shows that tap water in Spain is mostly well below the fluoride concentrations used for artificial fluoridation. The Basque Country is the only region in which forced fluoridation is the norm, as a result of legislation passed in 1998 which imposes it on cities with more than 30,000 inhabitants. At this point I am not able to make a precise estimate, but based on information from many sources, forced fluoridation is probably inflicted on no more than 5% of the Spanish population.
• Vitoria I et al (2014). Flúor en aguas de consumo público españolas y prevención de la caries dental (Fluoride content in tap water in Spain and prevention of dental caries). Gaceta Sanitaria 28(3): 255-256.

Madrid
less than 0.1
Canal de Isabel II
Barcelona
Avenida Diagonal 1 – 0.15
Aigües de Barcelona
Valencia
0.27
Aguas de Valencia
Seville
less than 0.2
EMASESA
Zaragoza
less than 0.15
Zaragoza Ayuntamiento

Sweden

Sweden does not inflict forced fluoridation on its population. Forced fluoridation ceased in 1962.

Stockholm
Norsborg less than 0.20, Lovö less than 0.20
Stockholm Vatten och Avfall
Gothenburg
less than 0.1
Göteborgs Stad
Malmö
0.23
VASYD

Switzerland

Switzerland does not inflict forced fluoridation on its population. Forced fluoridation ceased in 2003.

Zürich
0.071
Stadt Zürich – Departement der Industriellen Betriebe
Geneva
0.10
SIG
Basel
0.15
iwb