Fluoride in drinking water in western Europe

Updated

This page has a list of fluoride levels in tap water in western European cities and some info on fluoride levels in bottled water in western Europe.

The perpetrators of forced-fluoridation often try to explain away the fact that reported dental caries rates are just as low in nonfluoridated western European countries as they are in countries where forced-fluoridation is committed by exaggerating fluoride exposure in the former. According to the Fluoride Action Network, the Irish Republic (73% of the population), Spain (11% of the population), and Britain (11% of the population) are the only countries in western Europe which subject their populations to fluoride pollution in their tap water, making up just 3% of the total western European population. Those figures come originally from the British Fluoridation Society (BFS), and although the numbers for Ireland and Britain look about right, 11% for Spain appears to be an overestimate. I have not gone through the full list of communities in Spain which they claim are artificially fluoridated, but they list Seville and Córdoba, which as far as I can tell are not fluoridated. (With regard to Seville, I have water quality reports from 2019, 2018, and 2014 which show fluoride concentrations of less than 0.2 mg/L, so it is almost certainly not deliberately fluoride-polluted. The BFS lists only one source of information for Spain, which is from 2005, even though there is now a 2013 edition of the book, which appears to have always only been available in Spanish. I have found information about the fluoridation of the small town of El Pedroso in the province of Seville, so someone from the BFS may have seen the word “Sevilla” in the Spanish text and incorrectly assumed it was referring to the city of Seville.) Whatever the exact figure for western Europe, the European Union has unfortunately not done anything to protect that small minority from their governments, and in the case of Britain has, apparently, lost the chance to do so.

Below is a list of the 100 largest western (or thereabouts) European cities, with links to the latest information I could find on fluoride concentrations in the public water supplies of those cities. You can see from the figures which have been provided for the 50 largest cities that the fluoride concentrations are predominantly much lower than the 0.7 to 1.0 ppm nominal concentrations most commonly used for artificial water fluoridation, and mostly below 0.2 ppm. The information is not complete, and I’m only proficient in English so it’s possible there are some mistakes, but there has been no selective reporting. The only cities in the top 50 which are artificially fluoridated are Birmingham, England and Dublin, Ireland. No other cities had fluoride concentrations consistently above 0.5 ppm, though Copenhagen is in the ballpark, and Valencia is listed as 0.3 to 0.7. I have looked at the available data for the remaining 50 cities, which have only been included here via links to water suppliers etc, and their distribution is similar to that of the fluoride concentrations in tap water of the 50 largest cities. There are another 4 cities which are occupied by the force-fluoridating enemy: Dudley, England; Coventry, England; Sandwell, England; and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England – all of the occupied population centres in Britain are in fact in England, with none in Scotland, Wales, or Northern Ireland. Fluoride concentration data are available for a large majority of the cities listed, but not all of them. The list of cities was taken from the City Mayors website. Information on bottled water is listed at the bottom of the page. Information on salt fluoridation and other systemic fluoride treatments, and dental statistics, can be found on the next page.

Note that even though the fluoride concentrations are overwhelmingly low in comparison to those used for forced-fluoridation, they are not necessarily safe. The idea that naturally occurring fluoride is more or less harmless is a myth, and as a point of reference, the fluoride concentration of breastmilk is around 0.004 ppm (equivalent to 4 parts per billion). Fluoride is a highly toxic, cumulative poison. All figures below are in parts per million (ppm), or equivalently milligrams per litre (mg/L). The cities are numbered according to population size.

Fluoride levels in tap water in western Europe

Austria

7. Vienna
Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.2).
Stadt Wien

Belgium

48. Antwerp (Flanders)
Not occupied by the enemy (0.32, 0.16).
water-link

Britain

England

1. London, England
Not occupied by the enemy. Finsbury Park (N7 0AA – Holloway supply zone) 0.135, East Ham (E12 5AA – Manor Park) 0.151, Hanger Lane & Stonebridge (W3 0AA) 0.132, Brent Cross (NW2 1AA) 0.129, Charlton (SE13 5AA) 0.13, Merton (SW19 1AA) 0.132
Thames Water

13. Birmingham, England (West Midlands)
artificially fluoridated at a nominal concentration of 1.0 ppm
Severn Trent – Fluoride Agreements (PDF)
Severn Trent – Check My Water Quality
South Staffs Water – Water Quality Standards
South Staffs Water – Fluoride

21. Leeds, England (Yorkshire)
Not occupied by the enemy. LS1 1BA (Leeds LL Bramhope/Holbeck supply zone) 0.092
Yorkshire Water – Fluoridation
Yorkshire Water – In Your Area

37. Sheffield, England (Yorkshire)
Not occupied by the enemy. S1 1AA (Loxley supply zone) 0.062
Yorkshire Water

44. Bradford, England (Yorkshire)
Not occupied by the enemy. BD1 1AF (Bradford Central water supply zone) 0.05
Yorkshire Water

47. Liverpool, England (Merseyside)
Not occupied by the enemy. L2 2DP (Liverpool City Centre water supply zone) less than 0.0212
United Utilities

52. Manchester, England
Not occupied by the enemy.
United Utilities

54. Bristol, England
Not occupied by the enemy.
Bristol Water

56. Kirklees, England (Yorkshire)
Not occupied by the enemy.
Yorkshire Water

70. Wirral, England (Merseyside)
Not occupied by the enemy.
United Utilities

74. Wakefield, England (Yorkshire)
Not occupied by the enemy.
Yorkshire Water

77. Dudley, England (West Midlands)
Occupied by the enemy. Industrial fluoride pollution is dumped into Dudley’s public water supply, with a nominal “enhanced fluoride concentration at the regulatory value of 1.0 mg/l”.
South Staffs Water

78. Wigan, England (Greater Manchester)
Not occupied by the enemy.
United Utilities

79. East Riding of Yorkshire, England
Not occupied by the enemy, but recently under attack.
Yorkshire Post
Yorkshire Water

88. Leicester, England (Leicestershire)
Not occupied by the enemy.
Severn Trent

89. Sunderland, England (Tyne and Wear)
Not occupied by the enemy.
Northumbrian Water Limited

90. Sandwell, England (West Midlands)
Occupied by the enemy. Industrial fluoride pollution is dumped into Sandwell’s public water supply, with a nominal “enhanced fluoride concentration at the regulatory value of 1.0 mg/l”.
South Staffs Water

91. Doncaster, England (South Yorkshire) UK
Not occupied by the enemy.
Yorkshire Water

92. Stockport, England (Greater Manchester)
Not occupied by the enemy.
United Utilities (drinking water quality)
United Utilities (fluoridation)

93. Sefton, England (Merseyside)
Not occupied by the enemy.
United Utilities (drinking water quality)
United Utilities (fluoridation)

83. Coventry, England (West Midlands)
Occupied by the enemy. Industrial fluoride pollution is dumped into Coventry’s public water supply, with a nominal fluoride concentration of 1 ppm.
Severn Trent (fluoride)

96. Nottingham, England
Not occupied by the enemy.
Severn Trent

97. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England (Tyne and Wear)
Occupied by the force-fluoridating enemy.
Northumbrian Water Limited

Northern Ireland

87. Belfast (County Antrim)
Not occupied by the enemy.
Northern Ireland Water

Scotland

Scottish Water

26. Glasgow
Not occupied by the enemy. Milngavie C3 (G22 5AA) 0.04, Picketlaw (G76 0AA) 0.04, Carron Valley B (G63 0AA) 0.06

50. Edinburgh
Not occupied by the enemy. Glencorse C (EH10 4AA) 0.05, Castle Moffat (EH41 3AA) 0.06, Marchbank A (EH27 8AA) 0.04

65. Fife
Not occupied by the enemy.

71. North Lanarkshire
Not occupied by the enemy.

82. South Lanarkshire
Not occupied by the enemy.

Wales

76. Cardiff, Wales
Not occupied by the enemy.
Dŵr Cymru Welsh Water

Croatia

16. Zagreb
Not occupied by the enemy. Mala Mlaka 0.050, Petruševec 0.078, Sašnak 0.063, Zapruđe 0.080, Strmec 0.105
VIO

Czech Republic

11. Prague (Central Bohemia)
Not occupied by the enemy (0.12). (see link under “Aktualni kvalita vody” on right-hand side of PVK webpage below)
Pražské vodovody a kanalizace

58. Brno (South Moravia)
Not occupied by the enemy.
Brněnské vodárny a kanalizace

72. Ostrava (Moravia-Silesia)
Not occupied by the enemy.
Ostravské vodárny a kanalizace a.s.

Denmark

41. Copenhagen
Not occupied by the enemy. Islevbro 0.42, Lejre 0.85, Marbjerg 0.48, Regnemark 0.54, Slangerup 0.43, Søndersø 0.34, Thorsbro 0.27
HOFOR

95. Aarhus
Not occupied by the enemy.
Aarhus Vand

Finland

34. Helsinki (Uusimaa)
Not occupied by the enemy. Pitkäkoski 0.1, Vanhakaupunki less than 0.1
HSY

France

5. Paris (Île-de-France)
Not occupied by the enemy. centre 0.1, est 0.2, nordouest 0.0, sudouest 0.1
Eau de Paris

17. Marseille (Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur)
Not occupied by the enemy (0.08).
Eaux de Marseille

53. Lyon (Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes)
Not occupied by the enemy.
Eau du Grand Lyon

61. Toulouse (Occitanie)
Not occupied by the enemy.
ARS Occitanie

66. Nice (Alpes-Maritimes)
Not occupied by the enemy.
Ministère chargé de la santé

Germany

2. Berlin
Not occupied by the enemy. Spandau 0.21, Kladow 0.18, Beelitzhof 0.19, Tiefwerder 0.16, Tegel 0.17, Stolpe 0.23, Kaulsdorf 0.28, Wuhlheide 0.33, Friedrichshagen 0.19
Berliner Wasserbetriebe

6. Hamburg
Not occupied by the enemy. Baursberg 0.07, Billbrook 0.13, Curslack 0.16, Großensee 0.15, Haseldorfer Marsch 0.07, Lohbrügge 0.11, Nordheide 0.09, Schnelsen 0.09, Süderelbmarsch 0.13
Hamburg Wasser

10. Munich (Bavaria)
Not occupied by the enemy (0.2).
Stadtwerke München
Stadtwerke München (PDF)

14. Cologne (North Rhine-Westphalia)
Not occupied by the enemy. linksrheinisch 0.13, rechtsrheinisch 0.09
RheinEnergie AG Linksrheinisch (PDF)
RheinEnergie AG Rechtsrheinisch (PDF)

25. Frankfurt (Hesse)
Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.15).
Mainova AG

28. Essen (North Rhine-Westphalia)
Not occupied by the enemy (0.11).
Stadtwerke Essen AG

30. Dortmund (North Rhine-Westphalia)
Not occupied by the enemy. Hengsen 0.1, Villigst 0.09, Westhofen 0.09, Witten 0.1, Halingen 0.09
DEW21

31. Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg)
Not occupied by the enemy (0.07, 0.07, 0.09).
Zweckverband Landeswasserversorgung

32. Düsseldorf (North Rhine-Westphalia)
Not occupied by the enemy (0.13).
Stadtwerke Düsseldorf

36. Bremen
Not occupied by the enemy. Bremen-Nord less than 0.2, Bremen-Stadt less than 0.2, Mahndorf less than 0.2, Tenever less than 0.2
swb

38. Duisburg (North Rhine-Westphalia)
Not occupied by the enemy (0.175, 0.18, 0.13, not detectable).
Stadtwerke Duisburg AG

39. Hannover (Lower Saxony)
Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.3, 0.04).
enercity
enercity AG verteilten Trinkwassers (PDF)
enercity AG verteilten Trinkwassers
der Harzwasserwerke GmbH (PDF)

42. Leipzig (Saxony)
Not occupied by the enemy (0.49, 0.65, 0.13, 0.11, 0.10, 0.33, 0.13).
Leipziger Wasserwerke

43. Nuremberg (Bavaria)
Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.2).
N-ERGIE

46. Dresden (Saxony)
Not occupied by the enemy. Coschütz less than 0.15, Hosterwitz 0.16, Tolkewitz 0.23, Marsdorf less than 0.15, Schönborn less than 0.15, Weixdorf (Nord) less than 0.15
DREWAG

55. Bochum
(North-Rhine Westphalia) Not occupied by the enemy.
Stadtwerke Bochum

60. Wuppertal (North Rhine-Westphalia)
Not occupied by the enemy.
WAW

73. Bielefeld (North Rhine-Westphalia)
Not occupied by the enemy.
Stadtwerke Bielefeld

80. Mannheim (Baden-Württemberg)
Not occupied by the enemy.
MVV

85. Bonn (North Rhine-Westphalia)
Not occupied by the enemy.
SWB Energie und Wasser

98. Gelsenkirchen (North Rhine-Westphalia)
Not occupied by the enemy.
Gelsenwasser

99. Karlsruhe (Baden-Württemberg)
Not occupied by the enemy.
Stadtwerke Karlsruhe

Ireland (Republic of)

45. Dublin (Leinster)
Occupied by the enemy. Industrial fluoride pollution is dumped into Dublin’s public water supply, with nominal fluoride concentrations of somewhere between 0.6 and 0.8 ppm.
Irish Water (propaganda)
Irish Water (drinking water quality)

Italy

4. Rome (Lazio)
Not occupied by the enemy. Note that the following readings come from the Comune di Roma and that there are some higher fluoride levels in surrounding areas. Zona 1 Monteverde Vecchio 0.13, Zona 2 Peschiera Capore + Bracciano 0.13, Zona 3 Peschiera Capore 0.13, Zona 4 Nuovo Vergine Prevalente 0.46, Zona 5 Acqua Marcia less than 0.10, Zona 6 Appio Alessandrino HC 0.22, Zona 7 Appio Alessandrino LC 0.15, Zona 10 Ostia E Acilia 0.13
acea

9. Milan (Lombardy)
Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.5).
Metropolitana Milanese SPA

12. Naples (Campania)
Not occupied by the enemy. D27 Via Ponti Rossi 0.36, D40 Corso Garibaldi 0.55, D08 Via Cavalleggeri 0.15, D35 Via Icaro 0.11, D13 Via Padula 0.21
ABC [the map loads slowly when you click on it]

15. Turin (Piedmont)
Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.1).
SMA Torino

23. Palermo (Sicily)
Not occupied by the enemy (0.35).
AMAP S.p.A

24. Genova (Liguria)
Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.1).
Iren Acqua

57. Bologna (Emilia-Romagna)
Not occupied by the enemy.
Gruppo Hera

59. Florence (Tuscany)
Not occupied by the enemy.
Publiacqua

67. Catania (Sicily)
Not occupied by the enemy.
Sidra SpA

69. Bari (Puglia)
Not occupied by the enemy.
Acquedotto Pugliese

86. Venice (Veneto)
Not occupied by the enemy.
Veritas

Netherlands

20. Amsterdam (North Holland)
Not occupied by the enemy (0.09).
Waternet

29. Rotterdam (South Holland)
Not occupied by the enemy. Berenplaat (3197 XA) 0.19, Kralingen (3113 AA) 0.19
Evides

51. The Hague (South Holland)
Not occupied by the enemy.
Dunea Duin & Water

Norway

40. Oslo
Not occupied by the enemy (0.04).
Oslo kommune

Portugal

33. Lisbon
Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.1).
EPAL

100. Porto, Portugal
Not occupied by the enemy.
Águas do Porto

Spain

The following documents show that drinking water in Spain is mostly well below the fluoride concentrations used for artificial fluoridation. The Basque Country is the only region in which forced-fluoridation is the norm, as a result of legislation there.
Flúor en aguas de consumo público españolas y prevención de la caries dental (Fluoride content in tap water in Spain and prevention of dental caries)
MSCBS (PDF)

3. Madrid
Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.3).

8. Barcelona (Catalonia)
Not occupied by the enemy (0.08).
Aigües de Barcelona

19. Valencia
Not occupied by the enemy (0.3 to 0.7).
Aguas de Valencia

22. Seville (Andalusia)
Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.2).
EMASESA

27. Zaragoza (Aragon)
Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.15).
Ayuntamiento de Zaragoza

35. Malaga (Andalusia)
Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.3).
EMASA

62. Las Palmas (Gran Canaria)
Not occupied by the enemy.
emalsa

63. Bilbao (Basque Country)
Occupied by the enemy. Despite a lack of information in the water quality section of the website of the water supplier, Consorcio de Aguas Bilbao Bizkaia, there is information on the website of the Basque Country public healthcare institution Osakidetza which indicates that the people of Bilbao are in fact force-fluoridated. The water quality reports I have seen show fluoride concentrations between 0.4 and 0.6 ppm.
Consorcio de Aguas Bilbao Bizkaia
Osakidetza

64. Murcia
Not occupied by the enemy.
Aguas de Murcia

75. Valladolid (Castile and León)
Not occupied by the enemy.
Aguas de Valladolid

81. Córdoba (Andalusia)
Not occupied by the enemy.
Aguas de Córdoba

84. Palma (Balearic Islands)
Not occupied by the enemy.
EMAYA

94. Vigo (Pontevedra)
Not occupied by the enemy.
Aqualia

Sweden

18. Stockholm
Not occupied by the enemy. Norsborg less than 0.20, Lovö less than 0.20
Stockholm Vatten och Avfall
Stockholm Vatten och Avfall (PDF)

49. Gothenburg
Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.1).
Göteborgs Stad

Switzerland

68. Zürich
Not occupied by the enemy.
Stadt Zürich – Departement der Industriellen Betriebe

Fluoride levels in bottled water in western Europe

Overall the fluoride concentrations of the bottled water available in western Europe are higher than for tap water, but mostly well below the nominal concentrations used for artificial water fluoridation. There are some bottled waters with fluoride levels around 1 mg/L or higher, however, and a small proportion with much higher levels.

A 2010 paper reported a median fluoride concentration in European bottled water of 0.211 mg/L, taken from 1785 samples, compared to 0.0870 mg/L for European tap water, from 579 samples. For Germany the median fluoride concentrations were 0.242 mg/L for bottled water and 0.105 mg/L for tap water.
Birke M, Rauch U, Harazim B, Lorenz H, Glatte W (2010). Major and trace elements in German bottled water, their regional distribution, and accordance with national and international standards. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 107: 245-271.

Another 2010 article in the same journal found fluoride levels in 186 Italian bottled mineral waters from 0.011 mg/L to 1.75 mg/L, with a median of 0.143 mg/L.
Cicchella D, Albanese S, De Vivo B, GiaccioL, Lima A, Valera P (2010). Trace elements and ions in Italian bottled mineral waters: identification of anomalous values and human health related effects. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 107: 336-349.

In 2012 values for fluoride concentrations in mineral waters either bottled in Spain (97 brands) or imported into Spain (12 brands) were measured, with medians of 0.22 mg/L (range 0.00-4.16) and 0.35 mg/L (range 0.10-1.21) respectively.
Maraver F, Vitoria I, Almerich-Silla JM, Armijo F (2014). Fluoride content of bottled natural mineral waters in Spain and prevention of dental caries. Atención Primaria 47(1): 15-24.

A 2010 study found a median fluoride level in 67 bottled waters from the British Isles of 0.09 mg/L with a minimum of less than 0.02 mg/L and a maximum of 0.58 mg/L. Water from England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, and Ireland was tested.
Smedley PL (2010). A survey of the inorganic chemistry of bottled mineral waters from the British Isles. Applied Geochemistry 25: 1872-1888.

In 2009 the average fluoride concentration in 24 mineral waters available in Belgium, weighted by consumption frequency, was reported as 0.4 mg/L. A small majority of brands had fluoride levels lower than 0.5 mg/L, while the maximum concentration was 5.5 mg/L.
Vandevijvere S, Horion B, Fondu M, Mozin M, Ulens M, Huybrechts I, van Oyen H, Noirfalise A (2009). Fluoride intake through consumption of tap water and bottled water in Belgium. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 6: 1676-1690.

A 2004 research report from Finland found a median fluoride concentration in groundwater of 0.1 mg/L, with an average of 0.4 mg/L.
Kousa A, Moltchanova E, Viik-Kajander M, Rytkönen M, Tuomilehto J, Tarvainen T, Karvonen M (2004). Geochemistry of ground water and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in Finland. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 58(2): 136-139.

A 2003 study of 25 commercial brands of bottled water on sale in the north-east of England found an average fluoride concentration of 0.08 mg/L with a standard deviation of 0.08 mg/L and a range of 0.01-0.37 mg/L.
Zohouri FV, Maguire A, Moynihan PJ (2003). Fluoride content of steel bottled water is available in the North-East of England. British Dental Journal 195: 515-518.

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4 thoughts on “Fluoride in drinking water in western Europe

  1. John

    what about all of the cities, towns and villages in the Republic of Ireland? Ireland is the only country in Europe with mandatory state-wide fluoridation.

  2. Forced-fluoridation Freedom Fighters Post author

    Yeah, I know that Ireland is the only country in Europe where the majority of the population is directly subjected to forced-fluoridation, but the purpose of this post and the follow-up article is to show that low rates of dental caries in western European countries cannot be explained by fluoride ingestion. You may be interested in my response to a radio interview involving Joe Mullen, one of the major perpetrators of forced-fluoridation in Ireland.

  3. KSpencer

    There are 740 million Europeans. About 3% consume fluoridated water. Fluoridated salt is only available in a handful of countries and has a minority market share. Even fewer have access to fluoridated milk. In other words, over half a billion Europeans do NOT consume any fluoride. They may brush their teeth with it following the instructions to SPIT, DON’T SWALLOW.

    European letters: http://www.actionpa.org/fluoride/countries.pdf
    Sicily tests 667 water sources: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18064536

    No fluoridation of any type is available in Italy. A few villages on the hillsides of its two volcanos or located near polluted industrial zones have fluoride in their water. It is considered pollution and causal in “denti scritti” – teeth with marks on them, dental fluorosis.

    1. Forced-fluoridation Freedom Fighters Post author

      There is some information on artificial sources of fluoride in Western Europe in the follow-up article. It isn’t quite true that over half a billion Europeans do not consume any fluoride because everyone consumes some fluoride which is present naturally in water and food, but the levels are generally far lower than for people subjected to forced-fluoridation. Anyway, the main point is that fluoridationists never let the truth get in the way of their little fairytale, as you know.

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