Fluoride in Europe: drinking water F levels in the west

14 Nov 2014 – last update

This page has information on fluoride concentrations in tap water and bottled water in western Europe. The next page has info on salt fluoridation and other systemic fluoride treatments, and dental statistics. It also takes a closer look at Scotland and the Netherlands.

Forced fluoridation in western Europe overview

The perpetrators of forced fluoridation often try to explain away the fact that reported dental caries rates are just as low in nonfluoridated western European countries as they are in countries where forced fluoridation is committed by exaggerating fluoride exposure in the former. According to the Fluoride Action Network website, the Irish Republic (73% of the population), Spain (11% of the population), and Britain (11% of the population) are the only countries in western Europe which subject their populations to fluoride pollution in their tap water, making up just 3% of the total western European population. Those figures come originally from the British Fluoridation Society (BFS) website.

The number for Ireland looks about right. The BFS says it’s 10% for Britain, for what it’s worth. According to the National Health Service around 5.8 million people are currently subjected to forced fluoridation in England, making the figure 9% for the UK population. For Spain, 11% appears to be a large overestimate. The BFS lists only one source of information for Spain, which is from 2005, even though there is now a 2013 edition of the book, namely Odontología preventiva y comunitaria: Principios, métodos y aplicaciones edited by Emili Cuenca Sala and Pilar Baca García, which appears to have always only been available in Spanish. I have found many sources of information, mostly via water utilities, government, and academic publications, and all of the recent sources are consistent on 2 points: (1) the Basque Country accounts for the majority of forced fluoridation in Spain – legislation passed in 1998 imposes it on cities with more than 30,000 inhabitants; (2) forced fluoridation is no longer inflicted on anyone living in Andalusia – the mid-1980s Decrees which enabled it were repealed in 2009. The BFS lists Seville, Córdoba, and Linares, which are in Andalusia and which account for a large proportion of its 11% estimate, among its force-fluoridated communities, so removing Andalusia from the calculation makes a big difference. At this point I am not able to make a precise estimate, but forced fluoridation is probably inflicted on no more than 5% of the Spanish population.

Whatever the exact figure for western Europe, the European Union has unfortunately not done anything to protect that small minority from abuse of power. In Britain it has lost the chance to do so.

Only a small number of western European nations have formally banned forced fluoridation. However, a large majority is not currently guilty – all of those countries either never force-fluoridated or have not done so since 1973 at the latest, apart from Finland, which appears to have ceased in 1992. The reunified Germany and the Czech Republic have never force-fluoridated, but the former East Germany and Czechoslovakia did. Ireland is the only western European nation which has ever inflicted this crime on most of its population, and a large majority of countries either never force-fluoridated or inflicted it on a small minority.

Some of the public water supplies in western Europe have geogenic fluoride concentrations around 1 ppm or higher, but only small minorities of the population in each country are provided with water from those supplies. A small minority of bottled waters have geogenic fluoride concentrations at so-called “optimal levels” or above.

Fluoride levels in tap water in western Europe

Below is a list of western (or thereabouts) European cities, with links to the latest information I could find on fluoride concentrations in the public water supplies of those cities. For each of the 5 most populous countries, namely England, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain, the 5 most populous cities or metropolitan areas have been listed. For the other countries with populations of at least 4 million, I have attempted to provide data for the 3 most populous communities in each country.

The fluoride concentrations are predominantly much lower than the 0.7 to 1.0 ppm nominal concentrations most commonly used for artificial water fluoridation, and mostly below 0.2 ppm. The information is not complete, and I’m only proficient in English so it’s possible there are some mistakes, but there has been no selective reporting. Apart from in Ireland, which inflicts forced fluoridation on everyone with a public water supply, the only community on the list which is artificially fluoridated is Birmingham, England. No other cities had fluoride concentrations consistently above 0.5 ppm, though Copenhagen is in the ballpark. Information on bottled water is listed at the bottom of the page.

Note that even though the fluoride concentrations are overwhelmingly low in comparison to those used for forced fluoridation, they are not necessarily safe. The idea that naturally occurring fluoride is more or less harmless is a myth, and as a point of reference, the average fluoride concentration of breastmilk is around 0.004 ppm (equivalent to 4 parts per billion). Fluoride is a highly toxic, cumulative poison. All figures below are in parts per million (ppm), or equivalently milligrams per litre (mg/L).


Austria has never inflicted forced fluoridation on its population.
infoportal trinkwasser
Fluoridkompendium (from 2015 – PDF, 754 KB)

Lobau less than 0.20, Moosbrunn less than 0.20
Stadt Wien
0.05 – 0.08
Holding Graz
0.074 – 0.1


There is agreement that Belgium has not inflicted forced fluoridation on its population for a long time. According to the following article, forced fluoridation in Belgium had ended by 1988.
• Hileman B (1988). Fluoridation of water: Questions about health risks and benefits remain after more than 40 years. Chemical & Engineering News August 1: 26-42.


Callois 0.069, Rode 0.134, Bosvoorde 0.082, Ukkel 0.080, Elsene 0.084, Daussouix-Bosvoorde 0.097

AWW-PST 0.33, AWW-PB 0.15
unable to find data
Leveringsgebied 1 – 0.23, Leveringsgebied 2 – 0.20
Farys (fluoride statement)
Farys (composition)


Forced fluoridation is directly inflicted on approximately 9% of Britain’s population. These crimes are all being committed in England (mostly in the West Midlands and the Northeast), with none in Scotland, Wales, or Northern Ireland. Britain is currently under attack, with a plan to force-fluoridate “across the country”. You can sign a petition against mandatory forced fluoridation in the UK. Stopping it may require more than a petition, however.


“The average fluoride concentration for the Thames Water supplied area in 2020 was 0.14 milligrammes per litre” (from Notes section of water quality reports).
Finsbury Park (N7 0AA – Holloway supply zone) 0.13, East Ham (E12 5AA – Manor Park) 0.17, Hanger Lane & Stonebridge (W3 0AA) 0.13, Brent Cross (NW2 1AA) 0.13, Charlton (SE13 5AA) 0.14, Merton (SW19 1AA) 0.13
Thames Water
“Water supplies in the North West are naturally low in fluoride – and normally contain less than 0.2mg fluoride per litre.”
WA1 2BX (Warrington East water supply zone) 0.0317
United Utilities
Occupied by the enemy since 1964. The tap water is fluoride-contaminated wastewater with a nominal fluoride concentration of 1.0 ppm.
Severn Trent – Fluoride Agreements (PDF, 650 KB)
Severn Trent – Check My Water Quality
South Staffs Water – Water Quality Standards
South Staffs Water – Fluoride
“No fluoride is added to the water. Any fluoride that is there is naturally occurring.”
LS1 1BA (Leeds LL Bramhope/Holbeck supply zone) 0.078
Yorkshire Water
“None of the water supplied by Southern Water has fluoride added to it. Fluoride occurs naturally in very low levels.”
SO15 0AB (Otterbourne Indirect_01 water supply zone) 0.08625
Southern Water


Scotland does not inflict forced fluoridation on its population. That crime ended in 1983 (Attwood 1992, 41).
• Attwood D (1992). Dental health of children before and after the cessation of water fluoridation: volume 1 [PhD thesis]. Department of Conservative Dentistry, University of Glasgow.
Scottish Water

Milngavie C3 (G22 5AA) less than 0.12, Picketlaw (G76 0AA) less than 0.12, Carron Valley B (G63 0AA) less than 0.12
Glencorse C (EH10 4AA) less than 0.12, Castle Moffat (EH41 3AA) less than 0.12, Marchbank A (EH27 8AA) less than 0.12
Mannofield East (AB10 1BB) less than 0.12, Mannofield South (AB13 0AA) 0.12, Invercannie (AB31 4AA) 0.12


Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia in 1991. It does not inflict, and as far as I can tell has never inflicted, forced fluoridation on its population.

Mala Mlaka less than 0.05, Petruševec 0.07, Sašnak less than 0.05, Zapruđe 0.06, Strmec 0.07
0.000058 (the units are given as micrograms per litre so I’ve done the conversion to milligrams per litre, but it may be that they made a mistake and the units were milligrams per litre in the first place – via County Water Monitoring link after translating to English)
Vodovod i Kanalizacija Split


Denmark has never inflicted forced fluoridation on its population, though the fluoride concentrations of its public water supplies are generally quite high by western European standards.

Islevbro 0.60, Lejre 0.81, Marbjerg 0.56, Regnemark 0.62, Slangerup 0.51, Søndersø 0.43, Thorsbro 0.35
Aarhus Vand
Hovedværket 0.31, Holmehaveværket 0.31, Lindvedværket 0.59, Lundeværket 0.31, Dalumværket 0.29


Finland does not inflict forced fluoridation on its population. The Finnish town of Kuopio was forced fluoridated between 1959 and 1992, and to my knowledge this form of state-sponsored terrorism was not perpetrated anywhere in Finland after 1992.

Helsinki (incl. some of Espoo)
Pitkäkoski 0.1, Vanhakaupunki 0.1
less than 0.15
Tampereen Vesi
Turun Seudun Vesi Oy


France has never inflicted forced fluoridation on its population.

centre 0.0, est 0.2, nordouest 0.1, sudouest 0.0
eau de Paris
0.13 (from 2017)
Eau du Grand Lyon
Eau du Grand Lyon (PDF, 53 KB)
Sainte-Marthe 0.043, St Barnabe 0.058, Vallon d’Ol 0.041
Eaux de Marseille
unable to find data
iléo L’eau de la Mel
unable to find data
ARS Occitanie


The reunified Germany, which came into existence in 1990, has never inflicted forced fluoridation on its population.

Essen 0.11; Dortmund: Hengsen 0.1, Villigst 0.09, Westhofen 0.09, Witten 0.11, Halingen 0.09; Duisburg 0.11, 0.14, 0.13, 0.12; Bochum 0.11, 0.10
Stadtwerke Essen
Stadtwerke Duisburg
Stadtwerke Bochum
Beelitzhof 0.21, Friedrichshagen 0.18, Kaulsdorf 0.24, Kladow 0.19, Spandau 0.16, Stolpe 0.20, Tegel 0.19, Tiefwerder 0.14, Wuhlheide 0.29
Berliner Wasserbetriebe
Baursberg 0.08, Curslack 0.17, Haseldorfer Marsch 0.08, Nordheide 0.10, Süderelbmarsch 0.14
Hamburg Wasser
Cologne – Bonn
Cologne: linksrheinisch und Pulheim 0.13, rechtsrheinisch less than 0.05; Bonn less than 0.1
SWB Energie und Wasser
Stadtwerke München

Ireland (Republic of)

Dublin, Cork, Limerick…
Occupied by the enemy. Fluoride, which is highly toxic, nonbiodegradable, and bioaccumulative, is dumped into all of the Republic of Ireland’s public water supplies, with nominal fluoride concentrations of somewhere between 0.6 and 0.8 ppm. This crime has been perpetrated continuously since 1964. The nominal fluoride concentration was previously 1.0 ppm.
Irish Water (fluoridewit propaganda)
Irish Water (drinking water quality)


Italy has never inflicted forced fluoridation on its population.

Zona 1 Monteverde Vecchio 0.13, Zona 2 Peschiera Capore + Vigne Nuove 0.11, Zona 3 Peschiera Capore 0.12, Zona 4 Nuovo Vergine Prevalente 0.36, Zona 5 Acqua Marcia less than 0.10, Zona 6 Appio Alessandrino HC 0.13, Zona 7 Appio Alessandrino LC 0.13, Zona 8 Acqua Marcia + Peschiera Capore 0.10, Zona 9 Ostia e Acilia 0.12
acea acqua
less than 0.50
Milano Blu
less than 0.10


The Netherlands does not inflict forced fluoridation on its population. Forced fluoridation ceased in 1973 (Attwood 1992, 33).
• Attwood D (1992). Dental health of children before and after the cessation of water fluoridation: volume 1 [PhD thesis]. Department of Conservative Dentistry, University of Glasgow.

Berenplaat (3197 XA) 0.21, Kralingen (3113 AA) 0.21
The Hague
Scheveningen 0.23, Katwijk 0.23, Monster 0.23
Dunea Duin & Water


Norway has never inflicted forced fluoridation on its population.

Oslo kommune
Espeland 0.17, Jordalsvatnet 0.17, Kismul 0.18, Risnes 0.18, Svartediket 0.17, Sædalen 0.18
bergen vann
unable to find data


Portugal does not inflict forced fluoridation on its population. Depending on which source you believe, Portugal has either never perpetrated any forced fluoridation, or had one experimental treatment plant which was discontinued no later than 1988 (Hileman 1988, 30).
• Hileman B (1988). Fluoridation of water: Questions about health risks and benefits remain after more than 40 years. Chemical & Engineering News August 1: 26-42.

less than 0.100 to 0.312
Vila Nova de Gaia
Águas de Gaia
Águas do Porto


The journal article below shows that tap water in Spain is mostly well below the fluoride concentrations used for artificial fluoridation. The Basque Country is the only region in which forced fluoridation is the norm, as a result of legislation passed in 1998 which imposes it on cities with more than 30,000 inhabitants. At this point I am not able to make a precise estimate, but based on information from many sources, forced fluoridation is probably inflicted on no more than 5% of the Spanish population.
• Vitoria I et al (2014). Flúor en aguas de consumo público españolas y prevención de la caries dental (Fluoride content in tap water in Spain and prevention of dental caries). Gaceta Sanitaria 28(3): 255-256.

less than 0.1
Canal de Isabel II
Avenida Diagonal 1 – 0.15
Aigües de Barcelona
Aguas de Valencia
less than 0.2
less than 0.15
Zaragoza Ayuntamiento


Sweden does not inflict forced fluoridation on its population. Forced fluoridation ceased in 1962.

Norsborg less than 0.20, Lovö less than 0.20
Stockholm Vatten och Avfall
less than 0.1
Göteborgs Stad


Switzerland does not inflict forced fluoridation on its population. Forced fluoridation ceased in 2003.

Stadt Zürich – Departement der Industriellen Betriebe

Fluoride levels in bottled water in western Europe

Overall the fluoride concentrations of the bottled water available in western Europe appear to be higher than for tap water, but mostly well below the nominal concentrations used for artificial water fluoridation. There are some bottled waters with fluoride levels around 1 mg/L or higher, however, and a small proportion with much higher levels.

A 2010 paper reported a median fluoride concentration in European tap water of 0.0870 mg/L, taken from 579 samples, compared to 0.211 mg/L for European bottled water, from 1785 samples. A book chapter from 2012, but based on the same data, reported that the median fluoride concentration in European bottled water from 884 locations (with the same total of 1785 samples) was 0.188 mg/L, with a range of 0.003 to 10.7 mg/L. For European surface water the equivalent figures were 0.1 mg/L, and less than 0.05 to 1.55 mg/L (from 808 locations). With respect to the bottled water samples, a “predominance” of high fluoride concentrations in the waters from north-eastern Europe was noted, so the median for western Europe was most likely less than 0.188 mg/L. The 10.7 mg/L value was from a well in Georgia. Returning to the 2010 paper, for Germany the median fluoride concentrations were 0.242 mg/L for bottled water, from 908 samples, and 0.105 mg/L for tap water, from 164 samples.
• Birke M, Rauch U, Harazim B, Lorenz H, Glatte W (2010). Major and trace elements in German bottled water, their regional distribution, and accordance with national and international standards. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 107: 245-271.
• Demetriades A, Reimann C, Birke M, The Eurogeosurveys Geochemistry EGG Team. European Ground Water Geochemistry Using Bottled Water as a Sampling Medium. In: Clean Soil and Safe Water: NATO Science for Peace and Security Series – C: Environmental Security. Dordrecht (Germany): Springer; 2012. p. 115-139.

Another 2010 article in the same journal found fluoride levels in 186 Italian bottled mineral waters from 0.011 mg/L to 1.75 mg/L, with a median of 0.143 mg/L.
• Cicchella D, Albanese S, De Vivo B, Giaccio L, Lima A, Valera P (2010). Trace elements and ions in Italian bottled mineral waters: identification of anomalous values and human health related effects. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 107: 336-349.

In 2015 fluoride concentrations for 30 brands of commercially available bottled waters in Zagreb, Croatia were reported. The average for the carbonated water samples was 0.338 mg/L with a range of 0.014 to 1.150 mg/L, the average for the non-carbonated samples was 0.083 mg/L with a range of 0.015 to 0.301 mg/L, and the average for the flavoured samples was 0.225 mg/L with a range of 0.023 to 0.927 mg/L.
• Bašić K et al (2015). Fluoride content of bottled waters commercially available in Zagreb, Croatia. Intrinsic Activity 3(Suppl. 2): A6.8. [From: 21st Scientific Symposium of the Austrian Pharmacological Society. Joint Meeting with the British Pharmacological Society and the Pharmacological Societies of Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia]

In 2012 values for fluoride concentrations in mineral waters either bottled in Spain (97 brands) or imported into Spain (12 brands) were measured, with medians of 0.22 mg/L (range 0.00-4.16) and 0.35 mg/L (range 0.10-1.21) respectively.
• Maraver F, Vitoria I, Almerich-Silla JM, Armijo F (2015). Fluoride content of bottled natural mineral waters in Spain and prevention of dental caries. Atención Primaria 47(1): 15-24.

A 2010 study found a median fluoride level in 67 bottled waters from the British Isles of 0.09 mg/L with a minimum of less than 0.02 mg/L and a maximum of 0.58 mg/L. Water from England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, and Ireland was tested.
• Smedley PL (2010). A survey of the inorganic chemistry of bottled mineral waters from the British Isles. Applied Geochemistry 25: 1872-1888.

In 2009 the average fluoride concentration in 24 mineral waters available in Belgium, weighted by consumption frequency, was reported as 0.4 mg/L. A small majority of brands had fluoride levels lower than 0.5 mg/L, while the maximum concentration was 5.5 mg/L.
• Vandevijvere S, Horion B, Fondu M, Mozin M, Ulens M, Huybrechts I, van Oyen H, Noirfalise A (2009). Fluoride intake through consumption of tap water and bottled water in Belgium. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 6: 1676-1690.

A 2004 research report from Finland found a median fluoride concentration in groundwater of 0.1 mg/L, with an average of 0.4 mg/L.
• Kousa A, Moltchanova E, Viik-Kajander M, Rytkönen M, Tuomilehto J, Tarvainen T, Karvonen M (2004). Geochemistry of ground water and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in Finland. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 58(2): 136-139.

A 2003 study of 25 commercial brands of bottled water on sale in the north-east of England found an average fluoride concentration of 0.08 mg/L with a standard deviation of 0.08 mg/L and a range of 0.01-0.37 mg/L.
• Zohouri FV, Maguire A, Moynihan PJ (2003). Fluoride content of still bottled waters available in the North-East of England. British Dental Journal 195: 515-518.