Fluoride in drinking water in western Europe

Last updated March 2017

The forced-fluoridation freaks often try to explain away the fact that dental caries rates are just as low in nonfluoridated western European countries as they are in countries where forced-fluoridation is prevalent by exaggerating fluoride exposure in the former. According to the Fluoride Action Network, the Irish Republic (73% of the population), Spain (11% of the population), and the United Kingdom (11% of the population) are the only countries in western Europe which subject their populations to forced-fluoridation, making up just 3% of the total western European population, and I have not come across any contrary information. Unfortunately the European Union has not done anything to protect that small minority from their governments, and in the case of the UK has lost the chance to do so. Below is a list of the 40 largest western (or thereabouts) European cities, with the latest information I could find on fluoride concentrations in drinking water. The information is not complete, and I’m only proficient in English so there may be some mistakes, but there has been no selective reporting and you can see that the fluoride concentrations are predominantly much lower than the 0.7 to 1.0 ppm nominal concentrations most commonly used for artificial water fluoridation, and mostly below 0.2 ppm. The only city on the list which is artificially fluoridated is Birmingham, England. No other city on the list had fluoride concentrations consistently above 0.5 ppm, though Copenhagen came close, and Valencia is listed as 0.3 to 0.7. The next 40 largest cities are also listed below, along with forced-fluoridation status and links to pages from which fluoride concentrations can be accessed (or could be if more complete water quality data were provided, in some cases). I have had a look at the available numbers for those 40 cities, which have not been listed here, and their distribution is similar to that of the fluoride concentrations in drinking water of the 40 largest cities. There are another three cities which are occupied by fluoridationists: Dublin, Ireland; Dudley, England; and Coventry, England.

Note that even though the fluoride concentrations are overwhelmingly low in comparison to those used for forced-fluoridation, they are not necessarily safe. The idea that naturally occurring fluoride is more or less harmless is a myth, and as a point of reference, the fluoride concentration of breastmilk is around 0.004 ppm (equivalent to 4 parts per billion). Fluoride is a highly toxic, cumulative poison. All figures below are in parts per million (ppm), or equivalently mg/L.

London, England, UK Not occupied by the enemy. Finsbury Park (N7 0AA – Holloway supply zone) 0.135, East Ham (E12 5AA – Manor Park) 0.151, Hanger Lane & Stonebridge (W3 0AA) 0.132, Brent Cross (NW2 1AA) 0.129, Charlton (SE13 5AA) 0.13, Merton (SW19 1AA) 0.132
https://secure.thameswater.co.uk/dynamic/cps/rde/xchg/corp/hs.xsl/899.htm

Berlin, Germany Not occupied by the enemy. Spandau 0.16, Kladow 0.19, Beelitzhof 0.18, Tiefwerder 0.15, Tegel 0.27, Stolpe 0.29, Kaulsdorf 0.25, Wuhlheide 0.29, Friedrichshagen 0.17
http://www.bwb.de/content/language1/downloads/WW_Analysedaten_2016.pdf

Madrid, Spain Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.3).
The following documents show that drinking water in Spain is mostly well below the fluoride concentrations used for artificial fluoridation. The largest artificially fluoridated cities are Vitoria and San Sebastian, both in the Basque region.
http://www.gacetasanitaria.org/es/fluor-aguas-consumo-publico-espanolas/articulo/S021391111300201X/
http://www.msssi.gob.es/profesionales/saludPublica/docs/Inf_Cache_2014.pdf

Rome, Italy (Lazio) Not occupied by the enemy. Zona 1 Pescheria Capore Prevalente 0.20, Zona 2 Acqua Marcia Prevalente 0.13, Zona 3 Miscele Con Appio Alessandrino 0.35, Zona 4 Miscele Con Nuovo Vergine 0.51
https://www.acea.it/it/acqua/ato-2/mappa-qualita-acqua-acea-ato-2

Paris, France (Île-de-France) Not occupied by the enemy. centre 0.1, est 0.2, nordouest 0.1, sudouest 0.1
http://www.eaudeparis.fr/la-qualite-de-leau-a-paris/

Hamburg, Germany Not occupied by the enemy. Baursberg 0.07, Bergedorf 0.17, Billbrook 0.13, Bostelbek 0.14, Curslack 0.16, Glinde 0.13, Großensee 0.14, Großhansdorf 0.16, Haseldorfer Marsch 0, Langenhorn 0.08, Lohbrügge 0.11, Neugraben 0.14, Nordheide 0.09, Rothenburgsort 0.15, Schnelsen 0.09, Stellingen 0.10, Süderelbmarsch 0.13, Walddörfer 0.13
http://www.hamburgwasser.de/wasseranalysen.html

Vienna, Austria Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.2).
http://www.wien.gv.at/wienwasser/qualitaet/ergebnis.html#hoch

Barcelona, Spain (Catalonia) Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.3).
http://www.gacetasanitaria.org/es/fluor-aguas-consumo-publico-espanolas/articulo/S021391111300201X/

Milan, Italy (Lombardy) Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.5).
http://www.metropolitanamilanese.it/pub/page/it/MM/qualita_acqua

Munich, Germany (Bavaria) Not occupied by the enemy (0.2).
http://www.swm.de/dms/swm/dokumente/m-wasser/trinkwasser-analysewerte.pdf

Prague, Czech Republic (Central Bohemia) Not occupied by the enemy (0.10). (see link under “Aktualni kvalita vody” on right-hand side of PVK webpage below)
http://www.pvk.cz/aktualni-havarie.html

Naples, Italy (Campania) Not occupied by the enemy. Via Ponti Rossi 0.41, Via Padula 0.42, Piazza Mondragone 0.42, Via Madonnelle 0.59, Via A. Ghisleri 0.51
http://www.arin.na.it/index.php?id_page=4#blocco_250

Birmingham, England (West Midlands) artificially fluoridated at a nominal concentration of 1.0 ppm
https://www.stwater.co.uk/content/dam/stw/my-water/images/fluoride-agreements-stw.pdf
https://www.stwater.co.uk/my-supply/water-quality/check-my-water-quality/
https://www.south-staffs-water.co.uk/household/my-water-supply/water-quality/water-quality-standards
https://www.south-staffs-water.co.uk/household/my-water-supply/water-quality/fluoride

Cologne, Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia) Not occupied by the enemy (0.13).
http://www.rheinenergie.com/media/portale/downloads_4/rheinenergie_1/trinkwasseranalyse/trinkwasser_linksrheinisch.pdf

Turin, Italy (Piedmont) Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.1).
http://www.smatorino.it/monitoraggio.php?pageNum_analisi=6&totalRows_analisi=294&comune=

Zagreb, Croatia Not occupied by the enemy. Mala Mlaka less than 0.05, Petruševec 0.069, Sašnak less than 0.05, Zapruđe 0.072, Strmec 0.078
http://www.vio.hr/default.aspx?id=44

Marseille, France (Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur) Not occupied by the enemy (0.06).
https://www.eauxdemarseille.fr/carto/view

Stockholm, Sweden Not occupied by the enemy. Norsborg less than 0.20, Lovö less than 0.20
http://www.stockholmvatten.se/en/water-and-wastewater/drinking-water/quality-and-control/
http://www.stockholmvattenochavfall.se/globalassets/pdf1/english/certificate-kval-dekl-no-lo-eng-2016-03-29.pdf

Valencia, Spain Not occupied by the enemy (0.3 to 0.7).
http://www.gacetasanitaria.org/es/fluor-aguas-consumo-publico-espanolas/articulo/S021391111300201X/

Amsterdam, the Netherlands (North Holland) Not occupied by the enemy (0.10).
https://www.waternet.nl/ons-water/drinkwater/kwaliteit-van-ons-drinkwater/

Leeds, England (Yorkshire), UK Not occupied by the enemy. LS1 1AJ (Cross Green supply zone) 0.09
https://www.yorkshirewater.com/about-us/newsroom-media/our-statements#ls3
https://www.yorkshirewater.com/extra-services/in-your-area.aspx

Seville, Spain (Andalusia) Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.2).
http://www.emasesa.com/en/customers/quality/water-quality/
http://www.emasesa.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Agosto_2014.pdf

Palermo, Italy (Sicily) Not occupied by the enemy (0.35).
http://www.amapspa.it/comunicazione/educazione/carta-didentita-dellacqua/

Genova, Italy (Liguria) Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.10).
http://www.mediterraneadelleacque.it/dati_qualita_acqua_scheda.asp?comune=genova

Frankfurt, Germany (Hesse) Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.15).
https://www.mainova.de/static/de-mainova/downloads/Info_Jahresmittelwerte_Trinkwasseranalysen_2015_Ffm.pdf

Glasgow, Scotland, UK Not occupied by the enemy. Milngavie C3 (G22 5AA) 0.05, Picketlaw (G76 0AA) less than 0.04, Carron Valley B (G63 0AA) 0.04
http://www.scottishwater.co.uk/you-and-your-home/water-quality/waterqualitysearch

Zaragoza, Spain (Aragon) Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.15).
http://www.zaragoza.es/ciudad/IMSP/listado_IMSP

Essen, Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia) Not occupied by the enemy (0.11).
https://www.stadtwerke-essen.de/privatkunden/wasser/trinkwasseranalyse/detaillierte-trinkwasseranalyse/

Rotterdam, the Netherlands (South Holland) Not occupied by the enemy. Berenplaat (3197 XA) 0.19, Kralingen (3113 AA) 0.19
https://www.evides.nl/drinkwater/waterkwaliteit-en-hardheid

Dortmund, Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia) Not occupied by the enemy. Hengsen 0.1, Villigst 0.1, Westhofen 1 0.09, Witten 0.1, Haltern 0.14
https://www.dew21.de/privatkunden/wasser/trinkwasseranalyse/

Stuttgart, Germany (Baden-Württemberg) Not occupied by the enemy (0.05, 0.05, 0.08).
http://www.lw-online.de/trinkwasser/trinkwasser-qualitaet/

Düsseldorf, Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia) Not occupied by the enemy (0.14).
https://www.swd-ag.de/privatkunden/trinkwasser/trinkwasseranalyse/

Lisbon, Portugal Not occupied by the enemy. Fluoride concentration data do not seem to be available.
http://www.epal.pt/EPAL/menu/%C3%A1gua/divulga%C3%A7%C3%A3o-de-dados-da-qualidade-da-%C3%A1gua

Malaga, Spain (Andalusia) Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.3).
http://www.gacetasanitaria.org/es/fluor-aguas-consumo-publico-espanolas/articulo/S021391111300201X/

Bremen, Germany Not occupied by the enemy. Bremen-Nord, Bremen-Stadt, Mahndorf, Tenever less than 0.2
https://www.swb-gruppe.de/privatkunden/bremen/service/trinkwasser.php
https://www.swb-gruppe.de/privatkunden/bremen/media/pdf/Trinkwasser-Analyse_HB022016.pdf

Sheffield, England (Yorkshire), UK Not occupied by the enemy. S1 1AA (Loxley supply zone) 0.06
https://www.yorkshirewater.com/extra-services/in-your-area.aspx

Duisburg, Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia) Not occupied by the enemy (not detectable, 0.15, less than 0.1, less than 0.1).
https://www.stadtwerke-duisburg.de/privatkunden/wasser/
https://www.stadtwerke-duisburg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Downloads/Publikationen/Trinkwasseranalyse_2015.pdf

Hannover, Germany (Lower Saxony) Not occupied by the enemy (less than 0.3, less than 0.02).
http://www.enercity.de/privatkunden/produkte/wasser/wasserqualitaet/index.html
http://www.enercity.de/infothek/downloads/broschueren/wasser/trinkwasseranalyse-enercity-wasser.pdf
http://www.enercity.de/infothek/downloads/broschueren/wasser/trinkwasseranalyse-harzwasserwerke-gmbh.pdf

Oslo, Norway Not occupied by the enemy (0.03).
https://www.oslo.kommune.no/vann-og-avlop/drikkevannkvalitet/
https://www.oslo.kommune.no/getfile.php/1327342/Innhold/Vann%20og%20avl%C3%B8p/Drikkevannskvalitet/Drikkevannskvalitet%20Oslo%202015-%20sammendrag.pdf

Copenhagen, Denmark Not occupied by the enemy (0.51, 0.87, 0.53, 0.58, 0.51, 0.45, 0.34).
http://www.hofor.dk/vand/vandkvalitet/det-indeholder-drikkevandet/
http://www.hofor.dk/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Vandkvalitet-i-Københavns-Kommune1.pdf

Leipzig, Germany (Saxony) Not occupied by the enemy.
https://www.l.de/wasserwerke/wasserqualitaet/wasserinhaltsstoffe

Nuremberg, Germany (Bavaria) Not occupied by the enemy.
https://www.n-ergie.de/privatkunden/produkte/wasser/analysewerte.html

Bradford, England (Yorkshire), UK Not occupied by the enemy.
https://www.yorkshirewater.com/extra-services/in-your-area.aspx

Dublin, Ireland (Leinster) Occupied by the enemy. Industrial fluoride pollution is dumped into Dublin’s public water supply, with nominal fluoride concentrations of somewhere between 0.6 and 0.8 ppm. Irish Water does not appear to publicly report actual measured fluoride concentrations of the water.
https://www.water.ie/support/questions-and-answers/why-is-fluoride-added-to-/
http://www.fluoridesandhealth.ie/faq/

Dresden, Germany (Saxony) Not occupied by the enemy.
https://www.drewag.de/wps/portal/drewag/cms/menu_main/privatkunden/produkte/wasser

Liverpool, England (Merseyside), UK Not occupied by the enemy.
https://www.unitedutilities.com/services/your-water-supply/drinking-water-quality/

Antwerp, Belgium (Flanders) Not occupied by the enemy.
https://www.water-link.be/samenstelling-en-hardheid

Gothenburg, Sweden Not occupied by the enemy.
http://goteborg.se/wps/portal/start/vatten-och-avlopp/dricksvatten/dricksvattnets-kvalitet/!ut/p/z1/hY5BDoIwFAXP4gX6WyC0LMsCAxjBaAS6MUBqJaGtgcYmnl48gPHtJjOLBwJaEKZ_Tap3kzX9vHEn4ltNihNLCcfVPslwfinr7Fgeqqgi0PwLxKbxj3EMBYhp0MiPGmEU0iCmEaFRQimLAwpNCp3TZ3P13yfcDCFTIBZ5l4tc0MOuDlrvPVLWqlmi0Wp46vadr3z3AZs81bo!/dz/d5/L2dBISEvZ0FBIS9nQSEh/

Edinburgh, Scotland, UK Not occupied by the enemy.
http://www.scottishwater.co.uk/you-and-your-home/water-quality/waterqualitysearch

The Hague, the Netherlands (South Holland) Not occupied by the enemy.
https://www.dunea.nl/drinkwater/samenstelling

Manchester, England, UK Not occupied by the enemy.
https://www.unitedutilities.com/services/your-water-supply/drinking-water-quality/

Lyon, France (Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes) Not occupied by the enemy.
https://agence.eaudugrandlyon.com/origine-qualite-eau.aspx

Bristol, England, UK Not occupied by the enemy.
https://www.bristolwater.co.uk/your-home/water-quality/fluoride/

Bochum, Germany (North-Rhine Westphalia) Not occupied by the enemy.
http://www.stadtwerke-bochum.de/privatkunden/produkte/wasser/wasserqualitaet_bochum.html

Kirklees, England (Yorkshire), UK Not occupied by the enemy.
https://www.yorkshirewater.com/extra-services/in-your-area.aspx

Bologna, Italy (Emilia-Romagna) Not occupied by the enemy.
http://www.gruppohera.it/gruppo/attivita_servizi/business_acqua/qualita/qualita_acqua_hera/qualita_media_comuni/-bologna/pagina230.html

Brno, Czech Republic (South Moravia) Not occupied by the enemy. Fluoride concentration data do not seem to be available.
http://mapy.bvk.cz/jakost/

Florence, Italy (Tuscany) Not occupied by the enemy.
http://www.publiacqua.it/node/37

Wuppertal, Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia) Not occupied by the enemy.
https://www.wuppertal.de/microsite/wasserversorgung/wasserversorgung/index.php

Toulouse, France (Occitanie) Not occupied by the enemy. Fluoride concentration data do not seem to be available.
https://www.occitanie.ars.sante.fr/eau-de-consommation-0

Las Palmas, Spain (Gran Canaria) Not occupied by the enemy.
http://www.gacetasanitaria.org/es/fluor-aguas-consumo-publico-espanolas/articulo/S021391111300201X/

Bilbao, Spain (Basque Country) Not occupied by the enemy.
http://www.gacetasanitaria.org/es/fluor-aguas-consumo-publico-espanolas/articulo/S021391111300201X/

Fife, Scotland, UK Not occupied by the enemy.
http://www.scottishwater.co.uk/you-and-your-home/water-quality/waterqualitysearch

Nice, France (Alpes-Maritimes) Not occupied by the enemy. Fluoride concentration data do not seem to be available.
http://orobnat.sante.gouv.fr/orobnat/rechercherResultatQualite.do

Catania, Italy (Sicily) Not occupied by the enemy.
http://www.sidraspa.it/area-comunicazione/analisi-dell-acqua/

Zürich, Switzerland Not occupied by the enemy.
https://www.stadt-zuerich.ch/dib/de/index/wasserversorgung/Qualitaetsueberwachung/qualitaetswerte.html

Bari, Italy (Puglia) Not occupied by the enemy. Fluoride concentration data do not seem to be available.
http://www.aqp.it/portal/page/portal/MYAQP/SERVIZI/Qualita_Acqua/Le_caratteristiche_dellacqua/Parametri_chimici

Wirral, England (Merseyside), UK Not occupied by the enemy.
https://www.unitedutilities.com/services/your-water-supply/drinking-water-quality/water-quality-search-results/?postcodeField=CH60+0AN

North Lanarkshire, Scotland, UK Not occupied by the enemy.
http://www.scottishwater.co.uk/you-and-your-home/water-quality/waterqualitysearch

Ostrava, Czech Republic Not occupied by the enemy. Fluoride concentration data do not seem to be available.
https://www.ovak.cz/index.php?lokalita=25&document=&name=kvalita_vody&lang=1

Wakefield, England (Yorkshire), UK Not occupied by the enemy.
https://www.yorkshirewater.com/extra-services/in-your-area.aspx

Valladolid, Spain (Castile and León) Not occupied by the enemy.
http://www.gacetasanitaria.org/es/fluor-aguas-consumo-publico-espanolas/articulo/S021391111300201X/

Cardiff, Wales, UK Not occupied by the enemy.
http://www.dwrcymru.com/en/In-Your-Area/Water-Quality.aspx

Dudley, England (West Midlands), UK Occupied by the enemy. Industrial fluoride pollution is dumped into Dudley’s public water supply, with nominal fluoride concentrations “up to 1 mg/l”.
https://www.south-staffs-water.co.uk/household/my-water-supply/water-quality/water-quality-standards
https://www.south-staffs-water.co.uk/media/1798/shavers-end-sv.pdf

Wigan, England (Greater Manchester), UK Not occupied by the enemy.
https://www.unitedutilities.com/services/your-water-supply/drinking-water-quality/

East Riding of Yorkshire, England, UK Not occupied by the enemy, but under attack.
http://www.yorkshirepost.co.uk/news/health/another-step-taken-towards-fluoride-in-water-despite-protests-1-8240004
https://www.yorkshirewater.com/extra-services/in-your-area.aspx

Mannheim, Germany (Baden-Württemberg) Not occupied by the enemy.
https://www.mvv-energie.de/de/privatkunden/wasser/wasserqualitaet/wasserqualitaet_1.jsp

Córdoba, Spain (Andalusia) Not occupied by the enemy.
http://www.gacetasanitaria.org/es/fluor-aguas-consumo-publico-espanolas/articulo/S021391111300201X/

South Lanarkshire, Scotland, UK Not occupied by the enemy.
http://www.scottishwater.co.uk/you-and-your-home/water-quality/waterqualitysearch

Coventry, England (West Midlands), UK Occupied by the enemy. Industrial fluoride pollution is dumped into Coventry’s public water supply, with a nominal fluoride concentration of 1 ppm.
https://www.stwater.co.uk/my-supply/water-quality/about-your-water/fluoride/
https://www.stwater.co.uk/my-supply/water-quality/check-my-water-quality/


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4 thoughts on “Fluoride in drinking water in western Europe

  1. John

    what about all of the cities, towns and villages in the Republic of Ireland? Ireland is the only country in Europe with mandatory state-wide fluoridation.

  2. Forced-fluoridation Freedom Fighters Post author

    Yeah, I know that Ireland is the only country in Europe where the majority of the population is directly subjected to forced-fluoridation, but the purpose of this post and the follow-up article is to show that low rates of dental caries in western European countries cannot be explained by fluoride ingestion. You may be interested in my response to a radio interview involving Joe Mullen, one of the major perpetrators of forced-fluoridation in Ireland.
    https://forcedfluoridationfreedomfighters.com/response-to-joke-mullen-member-of-the-irish-expert-body-on-fluorides-and-health/

  3. KSpencer

    There are 740 million Europeans. About 3% consume fluoridated water. Fluoridated salt is only available in a handful of countries and has a minority market share. Even fewer have access to fluoridated milk. In other words, over half a billion Europeans do NOT consume any fluoride. They may brush their teeth with it following the instructions to SPIT, DON’T SWALLOW.

    European letters: http://www.actionpa.org/fluoride/countries.pdf
    Sicily tests 667 water sources: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18064536

    No fluoridation of any type is available in Italy. A few villages on the hillsides of its two volcanos or located near polluted industrial zones have fluoride in their water. It is considered pollution and causal in “denti scritti” – teeth with marks on them, dental fluorosis.

    1. Forced-fluoridation Freedom Fighters Post author

      There is some information on artificial sources of fluoride in Western Europe in the follow-up article. It isn’t quite true that over half a billion Europeans do not consume any fluoride because everyone consumes some fluoride which is present naturally in water and food, but the levels are generally far lower than for people subjected to forced-fluoridation. Anyway, the main point is that fluoridationists never let the truth get in the way of their little fairytale, as you know.

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