More fluoridated products than you can poke a stick at


Cooking with fluoridated water
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) (1993). Toxicological profile for fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine (F). U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Public Health Service.
Full CA, Parkins FM (1975). Effect of cooking vessel composition on fluoride. Journal of Dental Research 54: 192.
Warnakulasuriya S, Harris C, Gelbier S, Keating J, Peters T (2002). Fluoride content of alcoholic beverages. Clinica Chimica Acta 320(1-2): 1-4.
Heilman JR, Kiritsy MC, Levy SM, Wefel JS (1999). Assessing fluoride levels of carbonated soft drinks. Journal of the American Dental Association 130(11): 1593-1599.
Warren JJ, Levy SM (1999). Systemic fluoride: Sources, amounts, and effects of ingestion. Dental Clinics of North America 43(4): 695-711.
Kiritsy MC, Levy SM, Warren JJ, Guha-Chowdhury N, Heilman JR, Marshall T. (1996). Assessing fluoride concentrations of juices and juice-flavored drinks. Journal of the American Dental Association 127(7): 895-902.
Pang DTY, Phillips CL, Bawden JW (1992). Fluoride intake from beverage consumption in a sample of North Carolina children. Journal of Dental Research 71(7): 1382-1388.
Stannard JG, Shim YS, Kritsineli M, Labropoulou P, Tsamtsouris A (1991). Fluoride levels and fluoride contamination of fruit juices. The Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry 16(1): 38-40.
Petersen LR, Denis D, Brown D, Hadler JL, Helgerson SD (1988). Community health effects of a municipal water supply hyperfluoridation accident. American Journal of Public Health 78(6): 711-713.
Processed food
Cressey P, Gaw S, Love J (2010). Estimated dietary fluoride intake for New Zealanders. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 70(4): 327-336.
Warren JJ, Levy SM (2003). Current and future role of fluoride in nutrition. Dental Clinics of North America 47(2): 225-243.
Farkas CS (1975). Total fluoride intake and fluoride content of common foods: a review. Fluoride 8(2): 98-105.
Phosphate fertiliser
Cronin SJ, Manoharan V, Hedley MJ, Loganathan P (2000). Fluoride: A review of its fate, bioavailability, and risks of fluorosis in grazed-pasture systems in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 43(3): 295-321.
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) (1993). Toxicological profile for fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine (F). U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Public Health Service.
Waldbott GL, Burgstahler AW, McKinney HL (1978). Fluoridation: the great dilemma. Lawrence (USA): Coronado Press, Inc. 423 p.
Fluoride-based pesticides, including fumigants
Hwaidi MI, Sissons M, Pleming D, Collins PJ (2016). Does fumigation of wheat and semolina with sulfuryl fluoride affect quality of the grain, semolina, and derived spaghetti and bread? Cereal Chemistry 93(5): 482-486.
Calvert GM, Mueller CA, Fajen JM, Chrislip DW, Russo J, Briggle T, Fleming LE, Suruda AJ, Steenland K (1998). Health effects associated with sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide exposure among structural fumigation workers. American Journal of Public Health 88(12): 1774-1780.
Burgstahler AW, Robinson MA (1997). Fluoride in California wines and raisins. Fluoride 30(3): 142-146.
Topical fluoridated products
Cavalli AM, Rebouças AG, Zanin L, Florio FM (2016). Assessment of the influence of meal type on fluoride absorption due to ingestion of professionally applied gels. Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice 17(6): 451-456.
García-Hoyos F, Cardoso Silva C, Barbería E (2014). Renal excretion of fluoride after fluoride mouth rinses in children. European Journal of Pediatric Dentistry 15(1): 35-38.
Peters P, Drummond C (2013). Perioral dermatitis from high fluoride dentifrice: a case report and review of literature. Australian Dental Journal 58(3): 371-372.
Joshi S, Hlaing T, Whitford GM, Compston JE (2011). Skeletal fluorosis due to excessive tea and toothpaste consumption. Osteoporosis International 22(9): 2557-2560.
Hawkins R, Locker D, Noble J, Kay EJ (2003). Prevention. Part 7: professionally applied topical fluorides for caries prevention. British Dental Journal 195(6): 313-317.
Stookey GK (1994). Review of fluorosis risk of self-applied topical fluorides: dentifrices, mouthrinses and gels. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 22(3): 181-186.
Johnston DW (1994). Current status of professionally applied topical fluorides. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 22(3): 159-163.
Ekstrand J (1987). Pharmacokinetic aspects of topical fluorides. Journal of Dental Research 66(5): 1061-1065.
Systemic, prescription fluoride
Palmada E, Gallazzini C, Barria K, Licht L, Marie-Cousin A, Sixou JL (2017). Fluoride: changes in knowledge and prescription habits of paediatricians for 11 years in Brittany, France. European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry 18(1): 51-58.
Takahashi R, Ota E, Hoshi K, Naito T, Toyoshima Y, Yuasa H, Mori R (2015). Fluoride Supplementation in Pregnant Women for Preventing Dental Caries in the Primary Teeth of Their Children (Protocol). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
Fluoridated salt and milk
Sicca C, Bobbio E, Quartuccio N, Nicolò G, Cistaro A (2016). Prevention of dental caries: A review of effective treatments. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry 8(5): e604-e610.
Marthaler TM (2013). Salt fluoridation and oral health. Acta Medica Academica 42(2): 140-155.
Baez RJ, Marthaler TM, Baez MX, Warpeha RA (2010). Urinary fluoride levels in Jamaican children in 2008, after 21 years of salt fluoridation. Schweizer Monatsschrift für Zahnmedizin 120(1): 21-28.
Dental materials
Cury JA, de Oliveira BH, dos Santos APP, Tenuta LMA (2016). Are fluoride releasing dental materials clinically effective on caries control? Dental Materials 32(3): 323-333.
Zafar MS, Ahmed N (2015). Therapeutic roles of fluoride released from restorative dental materials. Fluoride 48(3): 184-194.
Fluoride exposure from fluorinated anaesthetics and other drugs
Barajas MR, McCullough KB, Merten JA, Dierkhising RA, Bartoo GT, Hashmi SK, Hogan WJ, Litzow MR, Patnaik MM, Wilson JW, Wolf RC, Wermers RA (2016). Correlation of pain and fluoride concentration in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients on voriconazole. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 22(3): 579-583.
Oc B, Akinci SB, Kanbak M, Satana E, Celebioglu B, Aypar U (2012). The effects of sevoflurane anesthesia and cardiopulmonary bypass on renal function in cyanotic and acyanotic children undergoing cardiac surgery. Renal Failure 34(2): 135-141.
Hoemberg M, Vierzig A, Roth B, Eifinger F (2012). Plasma fluoride concentrations during prolonged administration of isoflurane to a pediatric patient requiring renal replacement therapy. Pediatric Anesthesia 22(4): 412-413.
Wermers RA, Cooper K, Razonable RR, Deziel PJ, Whitford GM, Kremers WK, Moyer TP (2011). Fluoride excess and periostitis in transplant patients receiving long-term voriconazole therapy. Clinical Infectious Diseases 52(5): 604-611.
Lockwood G (2010). Theoretical context-sensitive elimination times for inhalation anaesthetics. British Journal of Anaesthesia 104(5): 648-655.
Nishiyama T, Aibiki M, Hanaoka K (1996). Inorganic fluoride kinetics and renal tubular function after sevoflurane anesthesia in chronic renal failure patients receiving hemodialysis. Anesthesia & Analgesia 83(3): 574-577.
Gras-Champel V, Grados F, Fardellone P, Andréjak M (2003). [Chronic fluorine intoxication during prolonged treatment with niflumic acid]. [Article in French] Presse Medicale 32(20): 933.
Pradhan KM, Arora NK, Jena A, Susheela AK, Bhan MK (1995). Safety of ciprofloxacin therapy in children: magnetic resonance images, body fluid levels of fluoride and linear growth. Acta Paediatrica 84(5): 555-560.
Rimoli CN, Carducci CN, Dabas C, Vescina C, Quindimil ME, Mascaró A (1991). Relationship between serum concentrations of flecainide and fluoride in humans. Bollettino Chimico Farmaceutico 130(7): 279-282.
Meunier PJ, Courpron P, Smoller JS, Briancon D (1980). Niflumic acid-induced skeletal fluorosis: iatrogenic disease or therapeutic perspective for osteoporosis? Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research 148: 304-309.
NRC (National Research Council) (2006). Fluoride in drinking water: a scientific review of EPA’s standards. Washington DC (USA): National Academies Press 530 p.
Waste disposal and forced fluoridation starting date
Bryson C (2004). The fluoride deception. New York (USA): Seven Stories Press 374 p.
Prevalence of forced fluoridation in the US compared to the rest of the world
Awofeso N (2012). Ethics of artificial water fluoridation in Australia. Public Health Ethics 5(2): 161-172.
Fluoridation chemicals used
NRC (National Research Council) (2006). Fluoride in drinking water: a scientific review of EPA’s standards. Washington DC (USA): National Academies Press 530 p.
Informed consent
Cross DW, Carton RJ (2003). Fluoridation: a violation of medical ethics and human rights. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 9(1): 24-29.
Estimated half-life
NRC (National Research Council) (2006). Fluoride in drinking water: a scientific review of EPA’s standards. Washington DC (USA): National Academies Press 530 p.
Industrial grade fluoridation chemicals
Hirzy JW, Carton RJ, Bonanni CD, Montanero CM, Nagle MF (2013). Comparison of hydrofluorosilicic acid and pharmaceutical sodium fluoride as fluoridating agents – A cost-benefit analysis. Environmental Science & Policy 29: 81-86.
Jha LB, Jha M (1982). Fluoride pollution in India. International Journal of Environmental Studies 19(3-4): 225-230.